Personality Theory #3

Neo Freudian Theorists

These theorists have similar views to Freud with some minor differences.

1.  Karen Horney (1885 - 1952)

a. Sociocultural Approach

b.  a contemporary feminist revision

c.  prime motive is need for security, not sex or aggression

d.  Shaped by interpersonal relationships, not biological.

2.  Carl Jung (1875 - 1961)

            a.  was a student of Freud.  Disagreed with some of his theories.

b.  roots of personality can be traced through human existence

c.  Two types of Unconsciousness

      1.  Personal Unconsciousness, which is similar to Freudís unconscious

2.  collective unconscious -- deepest level of unconscious shared by all humans due to common ancestry.  Essentially it is a storehouse of instincts, memories and urges of the entire human species.  There are some experiences that show the effects of the collective unconscious more clearly than others: The experiences of love at first sight, of deja vu (the feeling that you've been here before), and the immediate recognition of certain symbols and the meanings of certain myths

d.  archetype:  inherited, universal ideas.  Primordial images in collective unconscious

1.  eg, shadows -- represent evil, immoral, dark images or characters. It derives from our prehuman, animal past, when our concerns were limited to survival and reproduction, and when we weren't self-conscious.  It is the "dark side" of the ego

2.  Persona--represents your public image.  The mask you put on before you show yourself to the outside world.  It is just the "good impression"  we all wish to present as we fill the roles society requires of us. But, of course, it can also be the "false impression" we use to manipulate people's opinions and behaviors

According to Jung, everyone has both male and female tendency.

a.  anima -- a passive "feminine" image

b. animus -- an assertive "masculine" image

The anima or animus is the archetype through which you communicate with the collective unconscious generally, and it is important to get into touch with it. It is also the archetype that is responsible for much of our love life: We are, as an ancient Greek myth suggests, always looking for our other half, the half that the Gods took from us, in members of the opposite sex. When we fall in love at first sight, then we have found someone that "fills" our anima or animus archetype particularly well

3.  Alfred Adler (1870 - 1937) -- Individual Psychology

a.  emphasizes the uniqueness of every individual

1.  individuals can consciously monitor and direct their lives

b.  primary motive is need for superiority, and to overcome inferiority

1.  striving for superiority -- humans motivated to adapt, improve, and master the environment

2.  compensation -- attempt to overcome real or imagined weaknesses by developing oneís abilities

3.  overcompensation -- exaggerated effort to conceal or deny a weakness

4.  inferiority complex -- exaggerated feelings of inadequacy.  Attempt to compensate for their weakness to avoid feeling of inferiority.

5.  superiority complex -- exaggerated feelings of self-importance used to mask feelings of inferiority


            Adler, like Freud believe the key to personality development is childhood

                        a.  Parents who satisfies the childís wants, will produce a self-centered person

                        b.  Parents who neglect their child will produce a hostile angry person

                        c. Both will produce adults who lack self-confidence



4.  Eric Erikson

            a. Eriksonís stages of psychosocial development (Refer to previous notes)


5.  Erich Fromm

            a.  Theory centered around the need to belong and the loneliness freedom brings.