Neo Freudian Theorists
theorists have similar views to Freud with some minor differences.
Karen Horney (1885 - 1952)
a contemporary feminist revision
prime motive is need for security, not sex or aggression
Shaped by interpersonal relationships, not biological.
Carl Jung (1875 - 1961)
was a student of Freud. Disagreed
with some of his theories.
roots of personality can be traced through human existence
Two types of Unconsciousness
1. Personal Unconsciousness,
which is similar to Freudís unconscious
collective unconscious -- deepest level of unconscious shared by
all humans due to common ancestry. Essentially
it is a storehouse of instincts, memories and urges of the entire human species. There are some experiences that show the effects of
the collective unconscious more clearly than others: The experiences of love at
first sight, of deja vu (the feeling that you've been here before), and the
immediate recognition of certain symbols and the meanings of certain myths
archetype: inherited, universal ideas.
Primordial images in collective unconscious
shadows -- represent evil, immoral, dark images or characters. It
derives from our prehuman, animal past, when our concerns were limited to
survival and reproduction, and when we weren't self-conscious.
It is the "dark side" of the ego
2. Persona--represents your public image. The mask you put on before you show yourself to the outside world. It is just the "good impression" we all wish to present as we fill the roles society requires of us. But, of course, it can also be the "false impression" we use to manipulate people's opinions and behaviors
to Jung, everyone has both male and female tendency.
anima -- a passive "feminine" image
animus -- an assertive "masculine" image
The anima or animus is the archetype
through which you communicate with the collective unconscious generally, and it
is important to get into touch with it. It is also the archetype that is
responsible for much of our love life: We are, as an ancient Greek myth
suggests, always looking for our other half, the half that the Gods took from
us, in members of the opposite sex. When we fall in love at first sight, then we
have found someone that "fills" our anima or animus archetype
Alfred Adler (1870 - 1937) -- Individual Psychology
emphasizes the uniqueness of every individual
individuals can consciously monitor and direct their lives
primary motive is need for superiority, and to overcome inferiority
striving for superiority -- humans motivated to adapt, improve,
and master the environment
compensation -- attempt to overcome real or imagined weaknesses by
developing oneís abilities
overcompensation -- exaggerated effort to conceal or deny a
inferiority complex -- exaggerated feelings of inadequacy.
Attempt to compensate for their weakness to avoid feeling of inferiority.
superiority complex -- exaggerated feelings of self-importance
used to mask feelings of inferiority
Adler, like Freud believe the key to personality development is childhood
a. Parents who satisfies the childís wants, will produce a self-centered person
b. Parents who neglect their child will produce a hostile angry person
c. Both will produce adults who lack self-confidence
4. Eric Erikson
a. Eriksonís stages of psychosocial development (Refer to previous notes)
5. Erich Fromm
a. Theory centered around the need to belong and the loneliness freedom brings.